Techniques

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== Printed circuit board fabrication ==
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There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.
=== Homebrew ===
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* [[Toner Transfer]] -- This method involves laser printing your PCB design onto paper, then transferring toner onto copper-clad board.
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* [[Photoetching]] -- Exposure of PCB designs onto photosensitized copper-clad board.
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* [[Chemical Etchants]]
+
  
=== Commercial PCB fabrication ===
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== Circuit Design ==
* [[Submitting PCB's for fabrication]] -- Common processes for submitting PCB's for fabrication.
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* [[Basic Circuit Building Blocks]]
* [[PCB Manufacturers]]
+
  
== Circuit construction (non PCB) ==
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== Prototyping ==
 +
Prototyping circuitboards:
  
* [[Solderless protoboard]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadboard Wikipedia:Breadboard])
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* [[Solderless protoboard]]
 
* [[Point-to-point]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-point_construction Wikipedia:Point-to-point construction])
 
* [[Point-to-point]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-point_construction Wikipedia:Point-to-point construction])
 
* [[Wirewrap]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap Wikipedia:Wire Wrap])
 
* [[Wirewrap]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap Wikipedia:Wire Wrap])
* [[Dead bug style]] -- and a similar method, [http://ciphersbyritter.com/RADELECT/BREADBD/BREADBD.HTM "A Modern Breadboarding Technology: Insulating Pads Soldered to a Ground Plane"]
+
* [[Dead bug style]]
 
* [[Manhattan style]]
 
* [[Manhattan style]]
 +
* Board-less construction, not sure there is a name for it, can be very cool see: http://runawaybrainz.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/audio-crystal-cmoy-freeform-headphone.html this one is potted in clear plastic.
 +
* [http://www.qrp.pops.net/ugly.asp "Ugly Construction"] (like deadbug... )
 +
[http://www.techlib.com/electronics/construction.html "Construction Ideas"] has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques.
 +
[[http://www.geofex.com/Article_Folders/protostyles/proto_styles.htm "Effects Building Techniques"] by R.G. Keen 1999 reviews, compares, and contrasts these techniques for circuit construction -- also a few more.
  
[[http://www.techlib.com/electronics/construction.html "Construction Ideas"]] has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques.
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* [[Stripboard]] (Veroboard): ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stripboard Wikipedia:stripboard].)
  
== Soldering techniques ==
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Most of these techniques are designed to use through-hole devices with pins on 0.1" centers -- and vice versa: most through-hole devices are designed to fit into stripboard or other prototyping board with holes on 0.1" centers.
  
 +
So how do people prototype something with a surface mount device (SMD)?
 +
* Some people continue to use prototyping boards with 0.1" holes, with a bit of creativity, for some SMT devices ([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034580576/in/photostream/])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034026371/in/photostream])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034580678/])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034045085/in/photostream])
 +
* Some people solder many SMT devices to tiny "generic" "surface-mount prototyping boards", then those tiny boards wired together into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard). ([http://www.whitewing.co.uk/protoboard.html "Universal through-hole and SMD prototyping board"]), ([http://www.schmartboard.com/ Schmartboard] [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/schmartboardsv/ Schmartboard forum]), ([http://www.capitaladvanced.com/products.htm "Surfboards"]). Alas, none of these are completely generic for most kinds of SMT parts the way that stripboard is completely generic for almost all kinds of through-hole parts.
 +
* Some people buy a [[demo board]] with the SMT part already soldered to it; then these small boards can be wired into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard).
 +
* Sometimes people are forced to build a big custom PCB with precise footprints adapted to that SMD device. (This seems to be what manufacturers that make SMDs expect you to do).
 +
 +
== PCB Design/Fabrication ==
 +
[[Printed Circuit Boards]]
 +
 +
== Soldering Techniques ==
 
* [[Basic soldering]] -- How to use a soldering iron.
 
* [[Basic soldering]] -- How to use a soldering iron.
 
* Surface Mount
 
* Surface Mount
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** [[Toaster oven reflow]]
 
** [[Toaster oven reflow]]
 
** [[Hot air soldering]]
 
** [[Hot air soldering]]
 +
** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:WillWare/Homebrew_surface-mount_construction A few different SMT assembly methods] that you can do at home on a cheap budget
 
* [[Rework]] -- Techniques for fixing mistakes, or for adding new features to a board that ''almost'' does what you want.
 
* [[Rework]] -- Techniques for fixing mistakes, or for adding new features to a board that ''almost'' does what you want.
 
** [http://workmanship.nasa.gov/lib/insp/2%20books/links/sections/302_jumper%20wires.html official NASA recommendations for adding discrete wiring ("jumper wires") to PCBs]
 
** [http://workmanship.nasa.gov/lib/insp/2%20books/links/sections/302_jumper%20wires.html official NASA recommendations for adding discrete wiring ("jumper wires") to PCBs]
  
(Have you seen this [http://www.hackaday.com/2007/06/04/cnc-solder-paste-pick-n-place/ CNC solder paste/pick n place] ?)
+
(Have you seen this [http://hackaday.com/2007/06/04/cnc-solder-pastepick-n-place/ CNC solder paste/pick n place] ?)
 +
''Hackaday has lots of other similar articles: [http://hackaday.com/?s=solder+paste search hackaday for "solder paste"]''
  
== Software design tools ==
+
(Optional: ) After all the parts are completely soldered down, some people like to spray the board with some kind of conformal coating, or completely seal in the board with some kind of potting compound.
 +
See [http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/5095/whats-the-best-way-to-protect-a-board-from-corrosion-in-a-hot-moist-environment "Electronics and Robotics: What's the best way to protect a board from corrosion in a hot/moist environment?"].
  
Some people still build circuits without ever using any software tools.
+
== [[Hardware tool | Hardware Tools]] ==
For complicated circuits, software design tools can save a lot of time.
+
A directory of [[hardware tool]]s that you may find useful.
  
Here we list "suites" that combine schematic capture, component editor for the components used in schematic capture, circuit simulation, PCB layout, autorouter, and footprint editor for the footprints used in PCB layout.
+
== [[Software tool | Software Tools]] ==
(Is there another place for listing stand-alone tools such as a switching power supply "wizard" and a RF analysis tool?)
+
A directory of [[software tool]]s that you may find useful.
  
Quite often people mix-and-match tools -- using a schematic capture from one suite to generate pretty schematics and a netlist, then importing the netlist a third party Specctra autorouter, then importing the result into a PCB layout program from another suite for the final manual clean-up and design rule checking.
+
== [[PC-Microcontroller Communications]] ==
 +
Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...
  
In no particular order:
+
== Embedded System Programming and Testing ==
{| class="wikitable"
+
To add to the confusion programming in embedded system can mean a person writing a program or a device called a programmer "burning" a program into a chipThis section is for the "burning" meaning of programming.
|-
+
! Name !! Platform !! License !! AutoRouter !! Comments
+
|-
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|[http://geda.seul.org/ [[gEDA]]] || Linux, *BSD || Free,OSS || Ar || [http://geda.seul.org/wiki/ gEDA wiki] includes schematic and [http://sourceforge.net/projects/pcb/ PCB] for makeing [[gerber|gerbers]] etc...
+
|-
+
|[http://mccad.com/ McCAD EDS Lite] || Pl || Free demo max 200pin || Ar || Free demo version available for download, 200 pin limit
+
|-
+
|[http://applefritter.com/replica McCAD EDS SE] ||  || "free" ||  || Free book, "Apple I Replica Creation". Supports 750 pins, 11"x17" sheet size, 6-8 data layers. <tangent>(any useful tips in this book for those who want to build a CPU from scratch?) <reply>No, there are not.  The book is more entry-level. - Tom Owad</reply></tangent>
+
|-
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|[http://www.freepcb.com/ FreePCB] || Win32 || Free, OSS || Ar || PCB Design Software
+
|-
+
|[http://tinycad.sourceforge.net/ TinyCAD] || Win32||Free,OSS || Ar || Schematic Drawing Software
+
|-
+
|[http://kicad.sourceforge.net/ KiCad] || Win32,Linux,*BSD || Free,OSS || Ar || http://www.lis.inpg.fr/realise_au_lis/kicad/ EDA suite
+
|-
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|[http://expresspcb.com/ Express PCB] || Pl || Free || Ar ||
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|-
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|[http://altium.com/ Protel DXP] || Pl || Li || Ar || [http://techref.massmind.org/techref/app/protel.htm independent Protel users FAQ]
+
|-
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|[http://cadsoftusa.com/ Eagle] || Win32,Linux || Limited demo || Ar || http://cadsoft.de/ [http://www.sparkfun.com/tutorial/PCB/eagle-output-tutorial.htm Eagle tutorial from Sparkfun] [http://www.makezine.com/blog/archive/2006/03/how_to_make_a_custom_library_p.html Eagle tutorial (makezine)]
+
|-
+
|[http://diptrace.com/ DipTrace] || Pl || Free 30day demo || Ar || 
+
|-
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|[http://winqcad.com/ WinQcad] || Pl || Free demo || Ar || Demo with max 499 pins available for download
+
|-
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|[http://www.hutson.co.nz/ Rimu Schematic and Rimu PCB] || Pl || Li || Ar || ???
+
|-
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|[http://mentala.com/ SuperCAD and SuperPCB] || Pl || Li || Ar || 
+
|-
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|[http://www.autotraxeda.com www.autotraxeda.com] || Pl || Li || Ar ||  AUTOTraxEDA. <i>Holy poop!</i> It does EVERYTHING for NOTHING <i>(ed: not anymore)</i>. It won't run on *nix or anything less than NT (nope, it don't work on '98) but other than that, it appears to be a complete violation of the TANSTAAFL rules. <i>{ed: yep... now it costs.}</i> And the user forums have shown a certain lack of satisfaction with the program.
+
|-
+
|[http://www.expresspcb.com www.expresspcb.com] || Pl || Li || Ar || The ExpressPCB Windows layout software makes designing PC boards simple for the beginner and efficient for the professional. Its standard Windows user interface uses all the familiar commands such as copy, cut, paste &amp; dragging. PC board manufacturing service delivers boards in 3 business days or less. Often orders for two boards cost under $100. They keep changeing the program and old files may not work (due to increased limitations on the placement of objects) in the new versions without some rework. See [http://..app/tci.htm TCI] which is just about the same and prints or outputs to Gerber / Excellon files.
+
|-
+
|[http://www.holophase.com/dleval.htm www.holophase.com/dleval.htm] || Pl || Li || Ar || Circad's [http://www.holophase.com/dleval.htm DOS layout Demo] is free for non-commercial use.
+
|-
+
|[http://www.geda.seul.org/ www.geda.seul.org/] || Pl || Li || Ar || xNIX Electronic Design Automation project has Schematic capture with PCB CAD.
+
|-
+
|[http://www.vutrax.co.uk/pricing.htm www.vutrax.co.uk/pricing.htm] || Pl || Li || Ar || Vutrax for Windows - free for under 256 component pins
+
|-
+
|[http://www.interactiv.com www.interactiv.com] || Pl || Li || Ar ||  Electronic Workbench * ( Interactive Image Technologies Ltd.) $ 400 for 500 pins. Includes schematic capture and simulation, virtual instruments , and PCB layout. Said to be stable.
+
|-
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|[http://bach.ece.jhu.edu/~haceaton/pcb/ bach.ece.jhu.edu/~haceaton/pcb/] || Pl || Li || Ar || Absolutely free (GPL'ed) PCB program which can work under any POSIX compliant operating system (eg. Linux) and can produce Gerber or PostScript files.
+
|-
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|[http://www.labcenter.co.uk/ www.labcenter.co.uk/] || Pl || Li || Ar ||  They have a lite version "pic bundle" aprx. $149.00 includes schematic/simulation/pcb layout. You can write pic code for your pic schematic design and simulate. Even multi-pic,keypad,lcd display (really cool). Right now it can only simulate PIC1683/1684 (lite version limited to 1k program code), but it really works. They are working on more pic modules now. Will not produce Gerber/Excellion drill files only dxf, bmp, hpgl, tiff.
+
|-
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|[http://www.ivex.com/ www.ivex.com/] || Pl || Li || Ar || Winboard PCB Layout
+
|-
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|[http://www.illuminated.com.au/ www.illuminated.com.au/] || Pl || Li || Ar || Draftcad
+
|-
+
|[http://www.winqcad.com/ www.winqcad.com/] || Pl || Li || Ar ||  MicroCad
+
|}
+
  
(Some of this information in this table came from the [http://techref.massmind.org/techref/pcbcads.htm list of software design tools at the Massmind]).
+
* Many systems use [[JTAG]] for programming and testing. (Such as [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Atmel_AVR Atmel AVR embedded systems]]).
 +
* Other systems use some other kind of in-circuit programming.
 +
* Some people use [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Embedded_Systems/Bootloaders_and_Bootsectors bootloaders] to make re-programming a little quicker.
  
Is there any way to objectively compare these tools?
+
-- not sure that this next one is not misplaced ? --
How well did they do at the
+
''We're talking about "programming and testing" ? What else do you use to test op-amp circuits?''
[http://www.pcbwest.com/topgun/ PCB Top Gun contest] ?
+
  
=== Checklist for "The flow of PCB fabrication/PCB 製作流程" using Software Design Tool===
+
* Many people use an [[oscilloscope]] ([[o'scope]]). See [[oscilloscope]] for a list of Keith has made a list of low-cost o'scopesl [http://www.techtravels.org/amiga/amigablog/?p=167 "PC USB logic analyzers that cost under $1000."] for a list of low-cost logic analyzers.
*Format and shape of PCB are conformed./底板的幾何圖形和尺寸確認
+
*Via size and location are conformed./定位和開孔尺寸確認
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*Fixed location item are placed on suitable place./對有所要求之硬件放置的明白確認
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*A one-first PCB silk layout is made./做一張1:1的PCB白油圖
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*All item get enough clearance between them./所有硬件排放後檢查相鄰是否過於緊貼
+
*All vias get enough size to install them components./所有孔徑是否符合要求
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*Make sure no worng footprint is created./肯定了腳銲盤無錯誤
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*PCB is drew./完成了PCB
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*Netlist is ran and got a no error result./執行netlist指令直無錯誤
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*DRC is ran and got a no error result./執行DRC直至無錯誤
+
*Location of item is reasonable./模擬實物放置是否合理
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*All items are put on to a hard copy of PCB./放置所有零件在影印本的PCB上
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*Overall is checked./全面檢查確認無誤
+
  
And then the Gerbers are sent to a [[PCB Manufacturers]].
+
Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language.  Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: [[Programming Languages]]
  
== embedded system programming and testing ==
+
== Driving Motors ==
 
+
See [[Stepper Motor Tester]] and [[motor driver]].
* Many systems use [[JTAG]] for programming and testing. (Such as [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Atmel_AVR Atmel AVR embedded systems]]).
+
* Other systems use some other kind of in-circuit programming.
+
* Some people use [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Embedded_Systems/Bootloaders_and_Bootsectors bootloaders] to make re-programming a little quicker.
+
  
 
== Enclosure ==
 
== Enclosure ==
 
 
* The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
 
* The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
 
* Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
 
* Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
 
* Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
 
* Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
 +
* ''See [[enclosures]]''.
  
== further reading ==
+
== Misc Tips Tricks ==
 +
[[Misc Tips Tricks]]
  
 +
== Further Reading ==
 
* [http://airborn.com.au/method/ "Electronics Design" from Airborn] gives an overview of the complete process: specification, (schematic) circuit design, layout, prototypes, firmware, pilot run, production.
 
* [http://airborn.com.au/method/ "Electronics Design" from Airborn] gives an overview of the complete process: specification, (schematic) circuit design, layout, prototypes, firmware, pilot run, production.
 
* EDA electronic design automation software is a subset of CAD in general. Is there a wiki that discusses CAD in general? Until I find it, I'm going to post these tools here: "Google SketchUp is a powerful yet easy-to-learn 3D software tool" http://sketchup.google.com/ ; "Inkscape is the best tool for SVG standard vector graphics" http://wiki.inkscape.org/ ; Visual Wiki http://visualwiki.org/
 
* EDA electronic design automation software is a subset of CAD in general. Is there a wiki that discusses CAD in general? Until I find it, I'm going to post these tools here: "Google SketchUp is a powerful yet easy-to-learn 3D software tool" http://sketchup.google.com/ ; "Inkscape is the best tool for SVG standard vector graphics" http://wiki.inkscape.org/ ; Visual Wiki http://visualwiki.org/
Line 137: Line 87:
 
* [http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/ArticleID/6150/6150.html "What's All This Teflon Stuff, Anyhow?"] by Robert A. Pease -- explains a situation using lots of metal (instead of carefully insulating everything with lots of Teflon) causes less noise. Also mentions "why am I telling you all of these details? If I design a tester with greatly improved performance to help me test a really high-performance product, why should I tell all our competitors so that anybody in the world can test their products using the improved tester? Why should I give away all of these hard-earned secrets?" and gives some very good reasons.
 
* [http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/ArticleID/6150/6150.html "What's All This Teflon Stuff, Anyhow?"] by Robert A. Pease -- explains a situation using lots of metal (instead of carefully insulating everything with lots of Teflon) causes less noise. Also mentions "why am I telling you all of these details? If I design a tester with greatly improved performance to help me test a really high-performance product, why should I tell all our competitors so that anybody in the world can test their products using the improved tester? Why should I give away all of these hard-earned secrets?" and gives some very good reasons.
 
* [http://groups.google.to/group/sci.electronics.design/browse_thread/thread/889153f0e77b1718/fcaac532bb6d4b12?fwc=1 sci.electronics.design: EDN: Measuring Nanoamperes] discusses some ways to measure extremely small currents.
 
* [http://groups.google.to/group/sci.electronics.design/browse_thread/thread/889153f0e77b1718/fcaac532bb6d4b12?fwc=1 sci.electronics.design: EDN: Measuring Nanoamperes] discusses some ways to measure extremely small currents.
 +
* [http://www.millpcbs.com/ MillPCBs.com for techniques on using a small cnc machine to mill PCB's]
 
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Homebrew_PCBs yahoo.com/group/Homebrew_PCBs]
 
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Homebrew_PCBs yahoo.com/group/Homebrew_PCBs]
 
* [http://www.electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs.html electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs]
 
* [http://www.electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs.html electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs]
 
* [http://www.fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc.htm fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc]
 
* [http://www.fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc.htm fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc]
 +
* Dave McGuire says "The notion that through-hole soldering is easier than soldering surface-mount devices is, and always has been, [http://archives.seul.org/geda/user/Aug-2004/msg00175.html a myth.]" (Now, about keeping all the look-alike passive parts straight... :) )
 +
* [http://www.instructables.com/id/Intro-into-SMD-Soldering/ Intro into SMD Soldering]
 +
* [http://PMinMO.com/ PMinMO.com is THE PLACE for DIY CNC driver information]
 +
* [http://uptownmaker.blogspot.com/2009/07/18-essential-skills-for-maker.html 18 Essential Skills for a Maker]
 +
 +
== Environmental Issues ==
 +
See [[better for the environment]].
  
 
[[Category:Techniques]]
 
[[Category:Techniques]]

Latest revision as of 18:38, 11 November 2014

There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.

Contents

[edit] Circuit Design

[edit] Prototyping

Prototyping circuitboards:

"Construction Ideas" has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques. ["Effects Building Techniques" by R.G. Keen 1999 reviews, compares, and contrasts these techniques for circuit construction -- also a few more.

Most of these techniques are designed to use through-hole devices with pins on 0.1" centers -- and vice versa: most through-hole devices are designed to fit into stripboard or other prototyping board with holes on 0.1" centers.

So how do people prototype something with a surface mount device (SMD)?

  • Some people continue to use prototyping boards with 0.1" holes, with a bit of creativity, for some SMT devices ([1])([2])([3])([4])
  • Some people solder many SMT devices to tiny "generic" "surface-mount prototyping boards", then those tiny boards wired together into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard). ("Universal through-hole and SMD prototyping board"), (Schmartboard Schmartboard forum), ("Surfboards"). Alas, none of these are completely generic for most kinds of SMT parts the way that stripboard is completely generic for almost all kinds of through-hole parts.
  • Some people buy a demo board with the SMT part already soldered to it; then these small boards can be wired into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard).
  • Sometimes people are forced to build a big custom PCB with precise footprints adapted to that SMD device. (This seems to be what manufacturers that make SMDs expect you to do).

[edit] PCB Design/Fabrication

Printed Circuit Boards

[edit] Soldering Techniques

(Have you seen this CNC solder paste/pick n place ?) Hackaday has lots of other similar articles: search hackaday for "solder paste"

(Optional: ) After all the parts are completely soldered down, some people like to spray the board with some kind of conformal coating, or completely seal in the board with some kind of potting compound. See "Electronics and Robotics: What's the best way to protect a board from corrosion in a hot/moist environment?".

[edit] Hardware Tools

A directory of hardware tools that you may find useful.

[edit] Software Tools

A directory of software tools that you may find useful.

[edit] PC-Microcontroller Communications

Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...

[edit] Embedded System Programming and Testing

To add to the confusion programming in embedded system can mean a person writing a program or a device called a programmer "burning" a program into a chip. This section is for the "burning" meaning of programming.

  • Many systems use JTAG for programming and testing. (Such as Atmel AVR embedded systems]).
  • Other systems use some other kind of in-circuit programming.
  • Some people use bootloaders to make re-programming a little quicker.

-- not sure that this next one is not misplaced ? -- We're talking about "programming and testing" ? What else do you use to test op-amp circuits?

Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language. Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: Programming Languages

[edit] Driving Motors

See Stepper Motor Tester and motor driver.

[edit] Enclosure

  • The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
  • Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
  • Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
  • See enclosures.

[edit] Misc Tips Tricks

Misc Tips Tricks

[edit] Further Reading

[edit] Environmental Issues

See better for the environment.

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