Techniques

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There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.
 
There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.
  
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== Circuit Design ==
 +
* [[Basic Circuit Building Blocks]]
  
== Printed circuit board design/fabrication ==
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== Prototyping ==
=== Overview ===
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Prototyping circuitboards:
=== Software Design ===
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See [[#Software_design_tools|Software Design Tools]] below.
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==== Step by Step by using Software Design Tool ====
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* [[Solderless protoboard]]
*make sure the dimension and shape of PCB
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*make sure the size and location of Via for PCB stand
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*Make sure each components footprint.
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*each components are placed on suitable place by put on a hardcopy of simulation PCB
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*All components get enough clearance between them.
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*Silkscreen layout is confirmed.
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*PCB is drawn.
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*silkscreen adding the following:
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**version no.
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**organization name
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**board name
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*Netlist is ran and got a no error result.
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*DRC is ran and got a no error result.
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*Overall is checked.
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*generate Gerber and send to [[PCB Manufacturers]].
+
 
+
=== Manual Design ===
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Somepeople do this with layout on clear film or by directly drawing on a circuit board, of even by scratching, grinding....  For now let them google this.
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=== Homebrew fabrication ===
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Before exploring these techniques, you should understand your options with regard to services such as ExpressPCB.com and PCB123.com. Being able to have several boards fabbed in 2 days for $59 (for example) makes it harder to justify the hassle of etching your own boards at home.
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* [http://www.electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs.html "How to make really really good homemade PCBs"] by Mike Harrison 2007
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* [[Toner Transfer]] -- This method involves laser printing your PCB design onto paper, then transferring toner onto copper-clad board.
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* [[Photoetching]] -- Exposure of PCB designs onto photosensitized copper-clad board.
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* [[Chemical Etchants]]
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* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pcb-gcode "Mechanically etching or milling PCBs. No chemicals!"] -- Use your CNC router/mill to make PC boards.
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=== Commercial PCB fabrication ===
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* [[Submitting PCB's for fabrication]] -- Common processes for submitting PCB's for fabrication.
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* [[PCB Manufacturers]]
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* [http://diydrones.com/profiles/blog/show?id=705844%3ABlogPost%3A30196 "PCB fabbing advice"] by Chris Anderson 2008
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===Best Practices for PCB Layout===
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====Theory====
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*Provide the easiest path (lowest impedance) for current to flow
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**Current tends to flow directly under signal trace
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*Prevent digital currents from contaminating analog currents
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*Minimize inductance loop (i.e. area enclosed by signal trace and ground)
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====Design====
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*Partition (not necessarily isolate) PCB into analog and digital ground planes
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*No digital signal traces should cross over analog ground, and vice versa
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*For components having both analog and digital signals (e.g. ADC), orientate components so that the analog signal traces goes only over the analog ground plane, and digital signal traces goes only over the digital ground plane
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*AGNG and DGND of ADC must have a small impedance (i.e. separated by short distance)
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*Add decoupling capacitors close to Vcc and DGND of ICs
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*Add ferrite beads and capacitors (PI-network) to power rail for low-pass filtering (reduce ripples).
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*Eliminate ground loops
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====Routing====
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*Place fixed components first (components location that cannot be changed, e.g. connectors, buttons, etc)
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*Separate components into 3 groups
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**Digital signals only
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**Analog signals only
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**Digital and analog (Mixed) signals
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*Partition ground into analog and digital planes
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**Use single ground plane if possible, otherwise create bridges of same width under the mixed signal ICs
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*Orientate components that have mixed signals according to the orientation of the ground planes
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*Place digital only components over DGND
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*Place analog only components over AGND
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*Decoupling capacitors should be as close to the ICs as possible
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*Lay critical (noise-sensitive) traces first (e.g. crystal, analog signals)
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*Paired signal traces (e.g. TX+, TX- in ethernet chips) should run parallel along each other
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+
====References====
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*Grounding
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**[http://www.hottconsultants.com/pdf_files/june2001pcd_mixedsignal.pdf Partitioning and Layout of a Mixed Signal PCB]: The importance of single ground plane and partitioning of analog and digital signal trace
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**[http://www.hottconsultants.com/pdf_files/ground.pdf Ground- A Path For Current Flow]: The importance of decoupling capacitors
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**[http://www.ece.msstate.edu/courses/ece4512/des1_syllabus/current/PCB_Layout_Tips.ppt PCB Layout Tips]
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*Crystals and Oscillators
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**[http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc8128.pdf AVR186]: Best Practices for the PCB layout of Oscillators
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*ADC & Analog Filters
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**[http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/adn007.pdf ADN007]: Techniques that Reduce System Noise in ADC Circuits
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**[http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/ADN010.pdf ADN010]: Predict the Repeatability of your ADC to the BIT
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**[http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00699b.pdf AD699]: Anti-Aliasing, Analog Filters for Data Acquisition Systems
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**[http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00682c.pdf AN682]: Using Single Supply Operational Amplifiers in Embedded Systems
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**[http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00990a.pdf AN990]: Analog Sensor Conditioning Circuits - An Overview
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*EMC
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**[http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc1619.pdf AVR040]: EMC Design Considerations
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**[http://www.freescale.com/files/microcontrollers/doc/app_note/AN1705.pdf AN1705]: Noise Reduction Techniques for Microcontroller-Based Systems
+
 
+
== Circuit construction (Prototyping - Other than custom PCB) ==
+
 
+
* [[Solderless protoboard]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadboard Wikipedia:Breadboard]) ([http://www.best-microcontroller-projects.com/prototyping.html a simple example with a small microcontroller])
+
 
* [[Point-to-point]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-point_construction Wikipedia:Point-to-point construction])
 
* [[Point-to-point]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-point_construction Wikipedia:Point-to-point construction])
 
* [[Wirewrap]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap Wikipedia:Wire Wrap])
 
* [[Wirewrap]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap Wikipedia:Wire Wrap])
* [[Dead bug style]] -- and a similar method, [http://ciphersbyritter.com/RADELECT/BREADBD/BREADBD.HTM "A Modern Breadboarding Technology: Insulating Pads Soldered to a Ground Plane"]
+
* [[Dead bug style]]
 
* [[Manhattan style]]
 
* [[Manhattan style]]
 +
* Board-less construction, not sure there is a name for it, can be very cool see: http://runawaybrainz.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/audio-crystal-cmoy-freeform-headphone.html this one is potted in clear plastic.
 +
* [http://www.qrp.pops.net/ugly.asp "Ugly Construction"] (like deadbug... )
 +
[http://www.techlib.com/electronics/construction.html "Construction Ideas"] has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques.
 +
[[http://www.geofex.com/Article_Folders/protostyles/proto_styles.htm "Effects Building Techniques"] by R.G. Keen 1999 reviews, compares, and contrasts these techniques for circuit construction -- also a few more.
  
[[http://www.techlib.com/electronics/construction.html "Construction Ideas"]] has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques.
+
* [[Stripboard]] (Veroboard): ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stripboard Wikipedia:stripboard].)
  
* [[Stripboard]] (Veroboard): ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stripboard Wikipedia:stripboard].)
+
Most of these techniques are designed to use through-hole devices with pins on 0.1" centers -- and vice versa: most through-hole devices are designed to fit into stripboard or other prototyping board with holes on 0.1" centers.
  
== Soldering techniques ==
+
So how do people prototype something with a surface mount device (SMD)?
 +
* Some people continue to use prototyping boards with 0.1" holes, with a bit of creativity, for some SMT devices ([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034580576/in/photostream/])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034026371/in/photostream])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034580678/])([http://www.flickr.com/photos/nshdot/6034045085/in/photostream])
 +
* Some people solder many SMT devices to tiny "generic" "surface-mount prototyping boards", then those tiny boards wired together into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard). ([http://www.whitewing.co.uk/protoboard.html "Universal through-hole and SMD prototyping board"]), ([http://www.schmartboard.com/ Schmartboard] [http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/schmartboardsv/ Schmartboard forum]), ([http://www.capitaladvanced.com/products.htm "Surfboards"]). Alas, none of these are completely generic for most kinds of SMT parts the way that stripboard is completely generic for almost all kinds of through-hole parts.
 +
* Some people buy a [[demo board]] with the SMT part already soldered to it; then these small boards can be wired into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard).
 +
* Sometimes people are forced to build a big custom PCB with precise footprints adapted to that SMD device. (This seems to be what manufacturers that make SMDs expect you to do).
  
 +
== PCB Design/Fabrication ==
 +
[[Printed Circuit Boards]]
 +
 +
== Soldering Techniques ==
 
* [[Basic soldering]] -- How to use a soldering iron.
 
* [[Basic soldering]] -- How to use a soldering iron.
 
* Surface Mount
 
* Surface Mount
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** [http://workmanship.nasa.gov/lib/insp/2%20books/links/sections/302_jumper%20wires.html official NASA recommendations for adding discrete wiring ("jumper wires") to PCBs]
 
** [http://workmanship.nasa.gov/lib/insp/2%20books/links/sections/302_jumper%20wires.html official NASA recommendations for adding discrete wiring ("jumper wires") to PCBs]
  
(Have you seen this [http://www.hackaday.com/2007/06/04/cnc-solder-paste-pick-n-place/ CNC solder paste/pick n place] ?)
+
(Have you seen this [http://hackaday.com/2007/06/04/cnc-solder-pastepick-n-place/ CNC solder paste/pick n place] ?)
 +
''Hackaday has lots of other similar articles: [http://hackaday.com/?s=solder+paste search hackaday for "solder paste"]''
  
== [[Hardware tool]]s ==
+
(Optional: ) After all the parts are completely soldered down, some people like to spray the board with some kind of conformal coating, or completely seal in the board with some kind of potting compound.
 +
See [http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/5095/whats-the-best-way-to-protect-a-board-from-corrosion-in-a-hot-moist-environment "Electronics and Robotics: What's the best way to protect a board from corrosion in a hot/moist environment?"].
 +
 
 +
== [[Hardware tool | Hardware Tools]] ==
 
A directory of [[hardware tool]]s that you may find useful.
 
A directory of [[hardware tool]]s that you may find useful.
  
== Software design tools ==
+
== [[Software tool | Software Tools]] ==
 
+
A directory of [[software tool]]s that you may find useful.
Some people still build circuits without ever using any software tools.
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For complicated circuits, software design tools can save a lot of time.
+
 
+
Here we list "suites" that combine schematic capture, component editor for the components used in schematic capture, circuit simulation, PCB layout, autorouter, and footprint editor for the footprints used in PCB layout.
+
(Is there another place for listing stand-alone tools such as a [[switching regulator|switching power supply]] "wizard" and a RF analysis tool?)
+
 
+
Quite often people mix-and-match tools -- using a schematic capture from one suite to generate pretty schematics and a netlist, then importing the netlist a third party Specctra autorouter, then importing the result into a PCB layout program from another suite for the final manual clean-up and design rule checking.
+
 
+
In no particular order:
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<!-- Please use a valid license ie, BSD, GPL, Crippleware, Nagware, Shareware, Payware etc.. And specify platform. There's usually a lot of free win32 crippleware without sources makeing you victim of the design file hostage scenario. Also some packages are sub-packages to others, thus maybe no needing an entry of their own. -->
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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! Name !! Platform !! License !! AutoRouter !! Comments
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|-
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| [http://www.liquidpcb.org/ Liquid PCB] || Linux, Win32 || GPL || no || [http://liquidpcb.wiki.sourceforge.net/ Liquid PCB wiki at SourceForge] Liquid PCB is a computer aided design application for designing printed circuit boards. You are not restricted to straight tracks and 45º angles, you can draw tracks any way you like. The tracks will move and bend as required to maintain your design rules. It is open source, and still in the Alpha stage.
+
|-
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|[http://geda.seul.org/ [[gEDA]]] || Linux, *BSD || Free, OSS || autorouter || [http://geda.seul.org/wiki/ gEDA wiki] includes schematic and [http://sourceforge.net/projects/pcb/ PCB] for makeing [[gerber|gerbers]] etc...
+
|-
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|[http://mccad.com/ McCAD EDS Lite] || MacOSX, Win32 || Free demo max 200 pin || autorouter || Free demo version available for download, 200 pin limit
+
|-
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|[http://applefritter.com/replica McCAD EDS SE] || MacOSX, Win32 || "free"? || autorouter || Free with book, "Apple I Replica Creation". Supports 750 pins, 11"x17" sheet size, 6-8 data layers. <tangent>(any useful tips in this book for those who want to build a CPU from scratch?) <reply>No, there are not.  The book is more entry-level. - Tom Owad</reply></tangent>
+
|-
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|[http://www.freepcb.com/ FreePCB] || Win32 || GPL || can use [http://www.freerouting.net/ FreeRoute] || PCB Design Software
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|-
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|[http://tinycad.sourceforge.net/ TinyCAD] || Win32 || LGPL || n/a  || Schematic Drawing Software
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|-
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|[http://kicad.sourceforge.net/ KiCad] || BSD, Linux, MacOSX, Win32 || GPL || autorouter || http://www.lis.inpg.fr/realise_au_lis/kicad/ EDA suite ; [http://kicad.sourceforge.net/wiki/ KiCad wiki]
+
|-
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|[http://expresspcb.com/ Express SCH/PCB] || Win32 || Free use crippleware || ?  || ExpressPCB's propietatary free schematic capture & PCB layout designer locking you to use ExpressPCB for manufacture explicitly. Manufacture in 3 business days of two boards for ~100 USD.
+
|-
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|[http://altium.com/ Protel DXP] || Win32 ||  || autorouter || [http://techref.massmind.org/techref/app/protel.htm independent Protel users FAQ]
+
|-
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|[http://cadsoftusa.com/ Eagle] [[Eagle Links]] || Win32, Linux || Free use crippleware ||  || ( Russ Hensel says>> ) I have been kicking around as a hobbyist for a while and Eagle seems to be the main hobbyist circuit/pcb cad program.  It supports schematics and board layout with an auto-router.  The free version can easily support 2 dual op amps with wide traces and a one sided board.  There is quite a lot of info on the Internet and many projects supply eagle files.  There is also a $125 non profit version supporting larger boards.  It then gets expensive.  Eagle is not really easy to learn: cut for it would be copy in almost any other program.  It probably deserves a page or more of its own. ( << end RH ) <br>http://cadsoft.de/ <br>[http://www.sparkfun.com/tutorial/PCB/eagle-output-tutorial.htm Eagle tutorial from Sparkfun] <br>[http://www.makezine.com/blog/archive/2006/03/how_to_make_a_custom_library_p.html Eagle tutorial (makezine)]
+
|-
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|[http://diptrace.com/ DipTrace] ||  || Crippleware || ||  250-pin Freeware or Purchase more advanced versions
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|-
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|[http://winqcad.com/ WinQcad] ||  || Crippleware || || Demo with max 499 pins available for download
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|-
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|[http://www.hutson.co.nz/ Rimu Schematic and Rimu PCB] || Win32 || Payware || || Schematic & PCB design for MS-Windows
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|-
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|[http://mentala.com/ SuperCAD and SuperPCB] || Win32 ||  ||  || Mental Automation schematic & PCB for MS-Windows
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|-
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|[http://www.autotraxeda.com/ autotraxeda.com] ||  || ||  || AUTOTraxEDA needs MS-NT, won't work on MS-W98/ME. User forums have shown a certain lack of satisfaction with the program.
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|-
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|[http://www.holophase.com/dleval.htm holophase.com/dleval] || Win32 || Crippleware ||  || Circad's DOS version is free for non-commercial use.
+
|-
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|[http://www.geda.seul.org/ geda.seul.org] || BSD, Linux, MacOSX || GPL || autorouter || xNIX Electronic Design Automation project has Schematic capture with PCB CAD.
+
|-
+
|[http://www.vutrax.co.uk/pricing.htm vutrax.co.uk/pricing] || Win32 ||  || autorouter || Vutrax for MS-Windows. Free for under 256 component pins.
+
|-
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|[http://www.interactiv.com interactiv.com] ||  ||  ||  || Electronic Workbench, 400 USD for 500 pins. Includes schematic capture and simulation, virtual instruments and PCB layout. Said to be stable.
+
|-
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|[http://pcb.sourceforge.net Harry Eaton's PCB] || BSD?, Linux?, MacOSX?, Win32  || GPL || autorouter || PCB design program which can work under any POSIX compliant operating system like Linux (or BSD under API compability layer). Have Gerber and PostScript output options.
+
|-
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|[http://www.labcenter.co.uk/ labcenter.co.uk] ||  || ||  ||  They have a lite version "PIC bundle" ~149 USD includes schematic + simulation + pcb layout. You can write pic code for your pic schematic design and simulate. Even multi-pic, keypad, lcd display. Right now it can only simulate PIC16x83, PIC16x84 (lite version limited to 1k program code). Working on more pic modules. Will not produce Gerber or Excellion drill files. Only dxf, bmp, hpgl, tiff output (not sufficient!).
+
|-
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|[http://www.ivex.com/ ivex.com] ||  || Payware ||  ||  Winboard PCB Layout, now [http://www.calcentron.com/Pages/NTEHomePage/ivex_cad_software.htm calcentron.com].
+
|-
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|[http://www.illuminated.com.au/ illuminated.com.au] || Linux, Win32, DOS<!-- Claimed --> ||  ||  || Draftcad, Schematic Capture and PCB Design
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|-
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|[http://www.winqcad.com/ winqcad.com] || Win32, Linux+Wine || ||  || MicroCad
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|-
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| [http://www.4pcb.com/index.php?load=content&page_id=46 "PCB ARTIST"]  || Win32 || ? ||  || schematic + layout. Seems to lock you into using Advanced Circuits for manufacture (?).
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|-
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| [http://www.sunstone.com/PCB123.aspx PCB123]  || Win32 || ? ||  || schematic + layout. Seems to lock you into using Sunstone for manufacture (?).
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|-
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| [http://www.best-microcontroller-projects.com/schematic-drawing-program.html ProSchematic] || Win32 || "free trial" || no || can make schematics that look almost like photographs of a solderless breadboard.
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<!--
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|-
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| name and link || platform(s) || License? || AutoRouter? || Comments
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-->
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|}
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(Some of this information in this table came from the [http://techref.massmind.org/techref/pcbcads.htm list of software design tools at the Massmind]).
+
 
+
A [http://sourceforge.net/search/?type_of_search=soft&words=schematic SourceForge search for "schematic"] lists dozens of tools.
+
Other than the ones already listed above, what tools in that list are useful for open circuits?
+
 
+
Is there any way to objectively compare these tools?
+
How well did they do at the
+
[http://www.pcbwest.com/topgun/ PCB Top Gun contest] ?
+
 
+
Timing diagrams:
+
* GTKWave Electronic Waveform Viewer http://intranet.cs.man.ac.uk/apt/projects/tools/gtkwave/
+
* TimingTool  http://www.timingtool.com/
+
 
+
When you want to post a picture of a schematic or timing diagram on a web site, should you use JPEG or PNG?
+
I hope these 2 pictures answer your question:
+
 
+
* http://www.ninechime.com/gallery/sketch/StopJPEGing.jpg
+
* http://www.ninechime.com/gallery/sketch/StopJPEGing.png
+
  
 
== [[PC-Microcontroller Communications]] ==
 
== [[PC-Microcontroller Communications]] ==
 
 
Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...
 
Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...
  
Line 228: Line 69:
 
Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language.  Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: [[Programming Languages]]
 
Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language.  Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: [[Programming Languages]]
  
== Enclosure ==
+
== Driving Motors ==
 +
See [[Stepper Motor Tester]] and [[motor driver]].
  
 +
== Enclosure ==
 
* The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
 
* The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
 
* Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
 
* Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
 
* Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
 
* Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
 +
* ''See [[enclosures]]''.
  
== Further Reading ==
+
== Misc Tips Tricks ==
 +
[[Misc Tips Tricks]]
  
 +
== Further Reading ==
 
* [http://airborn.com.au/method/ "Electronics Design" from Airborn] gives an overview of the complete process: specification, (schematic) circuit design, layout, prototypes, firmware, pilot run, production.
 
* [http://airborn.com.au/method/ "Electronics Design" from Airborn] gives an overview of the complete process: specification, (schematic) circuit design, layout, prototypes, firmware, pilot run, production.
 
* EDA electronic design automation software is a subset of CAD in general. Is there a wiki that discusses CAD in general? Until I find it, I'm going to post these tools here: "Google SketchUp is a powerful yet easy-to-learn 3D software tool" http://sketchup.google.com/ ; "Inkscape is the best tool for SVG standard vector graphics" http://wiki.inkscape.org/ ; Visual Wiki http://visualwiki.org/
 
* EDA electronic design automation software is a subset of CAD in general. Is there a wiki that discusses CAD in general? Until I find it, I'm going to post these tools here: "Google SketchUp is a powerful yet easy-to-learn 3D software tool" http://sketchup.google.com/ ; "Inkscape is the best tool for SVG standard vector graphics" http://wiki.inkscape.org/ ; Visual Wiki http://visualwiki.org/
Line 245: Line 91:
 
* [http://www.electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs.html electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs]
 
* [http://www.electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs.html electricstuff.co.uk/pcbs]
 
* [http://www.fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc.htm fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc]
 
* [http://www.fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc.htm fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc]
* The notion that through-hole soldering is easier than soldering surface-mount devices is, and always has been, [http://archives.seul.org/geda/user/Aug-2004/msg00175.html a myth.]
+
* Dave McGuire says "The notion that through-hole soldering is easier than soldering surface-mount devices is, and always has been, [http://archives.seul.org/geda/user/Aug-2004/msg00175.html a myth.]" (Now, about keeping all the look-alike passive parts straight... :) )
 
* [http://www.instructables.com/id/Intro-into-SMD-Soldering/ Intro into SMD Soldering]
 
* [http://www.instructables.com/id/Intro-into-SMD-Soldering/ Intro into SMD Soldering]
 
* [http://PMinMO.com/ PMinMO.com is THE PLACE for DIY CNC driver information]
 
* [http://PMinMO.com/ PMinMO.com is THE PLACE for DIY CNC driver information]
* [http://piclist.com/techref/electips.htm Electronic Construction -- Tips, Tricks, Gens, Traps, and Snares]
+
* [http://uptownmaker.blogspot.com/2009/07/18-essential-skills-for-maker.html 18 Essential Skills for a Maker]
  
 
== Environmental Issues ==
 
== Environmental Issues ==
 
+
See [[better for the environment]].
see [[better for the environment]].
+
 
+
  
 
[[Category:Techniques]]
 
[[Category:Techniques]]

Latest revision as of 17:38, 11 November 2014

There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.

Contents

[edit] Circuit Design

[edit] Prototyping

Prototyping circuitboards:

"Construction Ideas" has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques. ["Effects Building Techniques" by R.G. Keen 1999 reviews, compares, and contrasts these techniques for circuit construction -- also a few more.

Most of these techniques are designed to use through-hole devices with pins on 0.1" centers -- and vice versa: most through-hole devices are designed to fit into stripboard or other prototyping board with holes on 0.1" centers.

So how do people prototype something with a surface mount device (SMD)?

  • Some people continue to use prototyping boards with 0.1" holes, with a bit of creativity, for some SMT devices ([1])([2])([3])([4])
  • Some people solder many SMT devices to tiny "generic" "surface-mount prototyping boards", then those tiny boards wired together into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard). ("Universal through-hole and SMD prototyping board"), (Schmartboard Schmartboard forum), ("Surfboards"). Alas, none of these are completely generic for most kinds of SMT parts the way that stripboard is completely generic for almost all kinds of through-hole parts.
  • Some people buy a demo board with the SMT part already soldered to it; then these small boards can be wired into a complete system (perhaps also including through-hole parts on a stripboard or solderless breadboard).
  • Sometimes people are forced to build a big custom PCB with precise footprints adapted to that SMD device. (This seems to be what manufacturers that make SMDs expect you to do).

[edit] PCB Design/Fabrication

Printed Circuit Boards

[edit] Soldering Techniques

(Have you seen this CNC solder paste/pick n place ?) Hackaday has lots of other similar articles: search hackaday for "solder paste"

(Optional: ) After all the parts are completely soldered down, some people like to spray the board with some kind of conformal coating, or completely seal in the board with some kind of potting compound. See "Electronics and Robotics: What's the best way to protect a board from corrosion in a hot/moist environment?".

[edit] Hardware Tools

A directory of hardware tools that you may find useful.

[edit] Software Tools

A directory of software tools that you may find useful.

[edit] PC-Microcontroller Communications

Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...

[edit] Embedded System Programming and Testing

To add to the confusion programming in embedded system can mean a person writing a program or a device called a programmer "burning" a program into a chip. This section is for the "burning" meaning of programming.

  • Many systems use JTAG for programming and testing. (Such as Atmel AVR embedded systems]).
  • Other systems use some other kind of in-circuit programming.
  • Some people use bootloaders to make re-programming a little quicker.

-- not sure that this next one is not misplaced ? -- We're talking about "programming and testing" ? What else do you use to test op-amp circuits?

Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language. Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: Programming Languages

[edit] Driving Motors

See Stepper Motor Tester and motor driver.

[edit] Enclosure

  • The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
  • Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
  • Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
  • See enclosures.

[edit] Misc Tips Tricks

Misc Tips Tricks

[edit] Further Reading

[edit] Environmental Issues

See better for the environment.

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