area codes juegos atenas 2004 personalized key chain animal cell phone cover mamacitas jobs web email sitemap young natural boobs payson web sitemap candee jay tvputas ibm computer memory free nes emulator he legend racconti erso frigorifero combinati heirloom sewing hampton multiple listing payless shoesource shop response rate lcd the way you move congestion rebound famous fairy tales asthmatics and exercise ibm computer part satellite phone service jauncey open the file unknown delitto di fede russian preteen art discount hotel in orlando florida sales tracking software leukocytes in urinalysis pay pal promo code export to japan texas marriage annulment girl in tight sweater hp pavilion media center luigis trattoria baseball sounds http dolce and gabbana london map street offenbach midi stepson support kenworth part truck kadella nude teen actress real flight g3 budget airline ticket westjet airlines www boma com www estradas com caminhoes speed glass welding hoods almost serious suicide foamy by lyric nemo nightwish homeweb site links tede wiem wiem east coast aviation supply cooling tower water treatment oppositional defiance disorder baby girl halloween costume business government grant loan small sailor mars ancient chinese food compact tractors lacey chabert wallpaper website backstreet boys show me the meaning of bei squeeze testicles laminate shelf iq scale abbey hotel roscommon com ebay stuff weird acomplia bleek infatuated memphis gigi sanna missouri mls marine stereos math comic cell phone rental uk allergic canine reaction blue film namitha tile drill bits tom mcrae gallery pussy small wet book publishers is this love bob marley we will go home we will go home 2006 anti definition norton update virus college credit navy smart transcript richards mature pussy i 7 nani non me loso spiegare sitemap lyger israeli woman sexi fattoria saint elizabeths hospital brighton b and h photo heart shape scottish prank calls toon sex code control remote universal plasma 60 tv televisori agente de en mexico viajes rock collections for sale ear loss stapling weight soccer pictures lord of the rings miniatures nicol kidman i got high band stage lighting the angel company rubber stamp secondary disease prevention lottery wheels labour market opinion canada green day boulavard of broken dreams photo risky shoot cast aluminum patio furniture netscape web mail login screen things to do in orlando dewalt steven hoskins benefits of dhea monkey wrench racing publa 2 halo montage pro tarja turunen delete internet knit necktie sexually abused woman south wales self catering accommodation arcgis dynamic earth earth edition exploring gis investigation science vancouver school board continuing education online cd deer resistant plants kenmore parts catherine deneuve malcolm mclaren normal heart rate hot babes in jeans rodeohead lyrics this my shit lyrics bank repo boats az 55 communities blacks for makeup An op amp ("operational amplifier") is a very high gain voltage amplifier ( the normal type ) usually with differential input, and response from DC to 1 Meg Hz or more. Mostly used with negative feedback so that the characteristics of the circuit is determined by the mostly passive components in the feedback circuit. One of the most useful analog components in the frequency range where they work.
Great for amplifying weak signals from sensors to a more useful level. Also used in filters, integrators, etc.
- Many sensors need an amplifier to "buffer" their output signal. Often a single op amp is adequate. For very weak signals, you may want a "difference amplifier" or "instrumentation amplifier".
- All ADCs need an anti-aliasing filter on their input. Often a single op amp, 2 caps and 4 resistors is adequate.
- If you want to hear a signal, use a LM386N-3 (under $1) to amplify it enough to drive a small speaker.
- If you want to drive heavy loads (big speakers, big antennas, electric motors, etc.), too heavy for typical op amps to drive, use op amps to amplify the signal to the desired voltage, followed by power transistors to drive the load [Veselinovic].
Suppliers such as Jameco, Digikey, and Newark each have pages and pages of fine print listing hundreds of op-amps, from "low-cost" quad op amps for under $0.40 each to "hi speed precision" op amps for well over $10 each. That doesn't include more complex devices (such as voltage regulators and RS-485 transcievers ) that combine op amps and other components on a single IC. Each one of those op amps has a data sheet several pages long packed with lots of details, which you can freely download from the manufacturer's web site.
"But in reality, there are only two important specifications that you should initially consider when selecting an op amp for your active, low-pass filter. ... Gain Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate." [Baker 2003]
designing the circuit around the op amp
selecting the appropriate op amp out of the hundreds (thousands?) available
- "Select the Right Operational Amplifier for your Filtering Circuits" by Bonnie Baker 2003
- "Choosing an op amp: it's no longer a trying task" by Bill Schweber 1995
- Basic electronics components list lists 10 of the most common op-amps.
- "How to choose the right bipolar op amp" by J. Scott Elder 2005-12-23