First, a few definitions:
- a CPU is something that can execute software programs. The earliest CPUs were built out of many parts, but now most CPUs are microprocessors.
- a microprocessor is a kind of CPU that all fits on one integrated circuit. The earliest microprocessors, and some famous kinds of microprocessors still being made, fill the entire chip, and so require external RAM and ROM/FLASH memory. But now most CPUs sold are microcontrollers.
- A microcontroller is a kind of integrated circuit that, in addition to the CPU, also includes RAM and ROM/FLASH memory on a single die/package.
A microcontroller is a little computer on a single Die/Package. The computer includes a CPU core, RAM, ROM/FLASH, and peripherals including UARTS, A/D converters, SPI, and I2C. Microcontrollers differ from microprocessors in that the microporcessors generally have bigger more powerful central processing units, but need support chips for ram, rom and other peripherals. Most modern microcontrollers use FLASH ram instead of a ROM so they can be programmed over and over. Many modern microcontrollers allow self-flashing to enable bootloading or a firmware update without pulling the chip from the circuit or using a programmer/debugger. Microcontrollers tend to be more optimizated for writting in assembly than PCs, but C and Basic are becoming more standard programming languages.
Many hobbyists use microcontrollers, sometimes even multiple microcontrollers, in their projects. Prices have fallen below $5 for the cheapest 32-bit microcontroller and below $1 for the cheapest 8-bit microcontroller.
About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers. Over 2 billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 1997. (Anyone have more up-to-date statistics?)
Somebody always thinks their microcontroller is the best microcontroller, so we have listed all of them as best.
"PIC vs. AVR": "OK, I know what you people want. You want ultimate fighting, embedded E.E. style. You want to know WHICH IS BETTER, PIC OR AVR?"
- PIC Links A bunch of links to PIC based information and projects
- Microchip PIC 8 bit FLASH microcontrollers
- Microchip dsPIC/PIC24 16 bit FLASH microcontrollers
- DsPIC30F 5011 Development Board
- Microchip PIC32 32 bit FLASH microcontrollers
- consider merging the following section to Which PIC to use, to gain the advantages of consolidating information.
Note about choosing a PIC:
The number of PIC models is huge so it is worth saying a few words on how to choose a PIC.
Things to consider as a hobbiest or making a small production run:
- Microchip tends to produce the same chip with minor variations. The exact same chip with the exact same pinout may be available in 8k, 16k, or 32k flash. Spend a few extra pennyies and take the best.
- SMT parts take practice to work with, so beginners should focus on DIP package parts with <= 40 pins. On the other hand, SMT parts can yield simpler and smaller PCB designs so they are worth consideration even for a hobbiest.
- Contrary to common sense, older parts are often more expensive then newer parts.
- Consider if a free/student version of a C compiler is availible. Microchip provides free/student student versions for the 18f,dsPIC/PIC24, and PIC32.
List of some of the best PICs for hobby purposes:
|PIC||Pin Count||Important Features||Typical Use|
|PIC12F683||8||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator||Very Simple Projects/Glue Logic|
|PIC16F88||18||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator, UART, I2C/SPI||General Purpose|
|18F2620||28||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator, UART, I2C/SPI||General Purpose|
|18F4620||40||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator, UART, I2C/SPI, 8 Bit Parallel Port||General Purpose|
|18F2550/18F2553||28||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator, UART, I2C/SPI, USB||USB Connectivity|
|18F4550/18F4553||40||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator, UART, I2C/SPI, USB, 8 Bit Parallel Port||USB Connectivity|
|P24FJ64GA002||28||ADC, I/O PWM, Comparator (with software selectable pin assignment), 2 UART, 2 I2C, 2 SPI||General Purpose|
Note: J means the PIC is a native 3.3V part. Other PICs will run at 3.3V but only at slower clock speeds.
The AVR series is split into 4 different types:
|ATtiny||Small (2 Ports or less) 8 bit RISC PU but extremely powerful (20MHz System Clock, 20MIPS, 64MHz Fast Peripheral Clock)||ATtiny25/45/85, ATtiny 26/46/86, ...||10bit ADCs, USI, 8/16bit timer, PWM, I²C, SPI , BOD, WDT, ...|
|ATmega||Powerful 8bit RISC PU with up to 10 IO Ports and up to 256k flash (20MHz system clock, 20 MIPS)||ATmega88, ATmega16/32, ATmega640/1280/2560, ATmega1281/2561, ...||10bit ADCs, USARTs, 8/16bit timer, I²C, SPI, BOD, WDT, ...|
|ATxmega||Extremely powerful 8/16bit RISC CPU with up to 10 IO Ports and up to 256k flash (32 MHz system clock, 32 MIPS)||ATxmega64A1/128A1/192A1/256A1, ATxmega64A3/128A3/192A3/256A3, ....||12bit ADC, 12bit DAC, 16 bit timer, USARTs, SPI, I²C, DMA, Real time clock, crypto engine,..|
|AVR32||High End 32bit RISC CPU for multimedia purposes (system clocks up to 200 MHz and more)||AP7000, AP7001, AP7002, AT32UC3A0128/0256/0512, ...||A lot =), see atmel.com for futher details|
Especially the ATmega series is very easy to use and is the best processor for beginners. All small chips are available in the easy to use DIL package and combined with an AVRDragon for about 60€ everybody with a budget of about 70€ is able to build and debug his own microprocessor applications. The AVRDragon allows you to debug all ATmega & ATtiny processors with less than 32k flash using DebugWire or JTAG and to program all ATmega / ATtiny devices using HVPP, ISP and JTAG.
Development Boards are printed circuit boards that contain a microcontroller and enough circuitry to get it going, typically at least some of the following: clock, voltage regulator, reset button, communications chip, buffer amplifiers, led's, prototyping area, and/or off chip connections. Sometimes the manufacturer of the chip sells development boards ( often called evaluation boards ). Development boards can be really basic, just enough to make the processor run, with connections to the IO pins. Or the boards can include communications, displays, input buttons etc. Often you can jump start a project by using a development board that does the boring standard stuff and let you focus on your project. The development board can let you use high density parts and surface mount parts that you might not want to mess with. The BitWacker kit from SparkFun is priced close the to the total price of the parts. This is probably true of some other development boards as well. Note that some development boards require you to build them they have not been made available as kits, some come both ways.
- Chalk Roach
- Arduino Links
- USB Bit Whacker ... can be used with BitWacker Java Communications
- RS232 Dev Board
- dsPIC30F 5011 Development Board
Other demo boards: see demo board.
- Cypress PSoC 8 bit FLASH microcontrollers.
- LPC2103 Low cost 70MHz ARM7TDMI-S FLASH Microcontroller from Philips. The "$49" "Coridium ARMmite" does use this chip.
- the ARM microcontroller wiki.
- Instructables: How to choose a MicroController
- Wikibooks: brief selection guide
- Main Page May have been a one man effort, now dropped. Has a bit of content that looks good.
- Cornell University ECE 4760 Designing with Microcontrollers Final Projects A ton on projects.