Chemical Etchants

From OpenCircuits
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Reverted edits by 209.200.38.173 (Talk); changed back to last version by DavidCary)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{stub}}
+
[http://cranberry6.50webs.com/moto-zundapp.htm moto zundapp] [http://buuah.50webs.com/resources/labtec-webcam1.htm labtec webcam pro usb] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/abit-aaxe1/ abit aa8xe] [http://fejanor.50webs.com/telegiornali/ telegiornali] [http://darkforest214.50webs.com/acapulco-prima.htm acapulco prima spiaggia a sinistra] [http://usek.50webs.com/view/rifiuti-.htm rifiuti 16 arresti] [http://usek.50webs.com/view/konicaminolta-a.htm konicaminolta a2] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/content/casnova/ casnova] [http://striferaven.50webs.com/view/laserjet-color4/ laserjet color 3550n] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/www-virtuagirl/ www virtuagirl com] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/orari-autobus3.htm orari autobus in calabria] [http://producejb.50webs.com/new/numeri-di9/ numeri di telefoo] [http://darkforest214.50webs.com/villa-dei.htm villa dei cedri lazzise] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/www-cellulare.htm www cellulare panasonic x60] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/kirkuk/ kirkuk] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/impianti-home4.htm impianti home theatre] [http://delvy.50webs.com/directory/come-e5/ come e triste venezia] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/web/coppia-catania/ coppia catania] [http://producejb.50webs.com/new/vaschetta-ok/ vaschetta ok baby] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/fuga-a2/ fuga a mezzanotte] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/hunny-bunny/ hunny bunny] [http://buuah.50webs.com/resources/regole-gazebo.htm regole gazebo] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/kamrup/ kamrup] [http://buuah.50webs.com/resources/whit-temptation.htm whit temptation] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/hard-disk687/ hard disk sata maxtor 250 gb maxline] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/giulietta-sacco.htm giulietta sacco] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/dvd-my/ dvd my life] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/puma-ferrari1/ puma ferrari] [http://afreelanpork.50webs.com/lib/epson-57.htm epson 4000 cartucce] [http://derfertyop.50webs.com/blog/sigle-gratis/ sigle gratis 2002 2003] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/index0_1000.html url] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/index0_500.html page] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/web/stagioni-di1/ stagioni di francesco guccini] [http://callie20.50webs.com/resources/video-pissing.htm video pissing] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/content/bella-notre1/ bella notre dame] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/sintoamplificatore-yamaha1/ sintoamplificatore yamaha 6 1] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/content/mifune-dogma/ mifune dogma 3] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/new-beauty1.htm new beauty magazines] [http://buuah.50webs.com/resources/www-inter5.htm www inter com] [http://darkforest214.50webs.com/scooter-desenzano.htm scooter desenzano] [http://wanderinwords.50webs.com/new/km-bmw44.htm km0 bmw 325 auto km 0] [http://afreelanpork.50webs.com/lib/camicie-napoli.htm camicie napoli] [http://callie20.50webs.com/resources/aloe-barbadensis.htm aloe barbadensis] [http://windmade.50webs.com/new/un-assassino1.htm un assassino per un testimone] [http://qizz.50webs.com/new/malattia-fegato/ malattia fegato] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/index0_1000.html home] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/netgear-mimo.htm netgear mimo] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/garden-state1/ garden state] [http://striferaven.50webs.com/view/lancia-ypsilon21/ lancia ypsilon toscana] [http://producejb.50webs.com/new/forno-da21/ forno da incasso smeg] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/video-gp4.htm video 3gp porno] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/doghe-materassi/ doghe materassi] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/web/risultati-esami8/ risultati esami avvocato 2003] [http://delvy.50webs.com/directory/caserta-alberghi/ caserta alberghi] [http://striferaven.50webs.com/view/rut-sin1/ rut sin die ruse] [http://fejanor.50webs.com/donne-che29/ donne che scopano con i figli] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/key-page/ key page] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/www-motorquality.htm www motorquality it] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/puntatori/ puntatori] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/index1_250.html url] [http://windmade.50webs.com/new/il-punto3.htm il punto biella] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/acer-al26/ acer al1711 s] [http://callie20.50webs.com/resources/gloria-a1.htm gloria a dio] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/index0_500.html page] [http://windmade.50webs.com/new/capo-verde10.htm capo verde alberghi e hotel] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/prenotazioni-albergo2/ prenotazioni albergo montecarlo] [http://qizz.50webs.com/new/bring-to/ bring to life] [http://producejb.50webs.com/new/mano-negra1/ mano negra illegal] [http://producejb.50webs.com/new/quien-invento/ quien invento radio] [http://windmade.50webs.com/new/shakur-tupac.htm shakur tupac thug angel] [http://callie20.50webs.com/resources/joypad-dualshock1.htm joypad dualshock] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/www-sfondi4/ www sfondi it] [http://usek.50webs.com/view/fuoco-di3.htm fuoco di s antonio] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/yu-gi65.htm yu gi ho per visual boy advanc] [http://cranberry6.50webs.com/programmi-media.htm programmi media player] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/gioco-di74.htm gioco di carte bridge] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/copertine-di5/ copertine di playboy] [http://derfertyop.50webs.com/blog/memorie-pc4/ memorie pc100] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/content/decapitazione-ultima/ decapitazione ultima] [http://animaetrix00.50webs.com/library/xdpicture-card13.htm xdpicture card fujifilm] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/index3_500.html site] [http://afreelanpork.50webs.com/lib/netzero-net.htm netzero net] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/que-es49.htm que es wordpad] [http://qizz.50webs.com/new/overjoyed/ overjoyed] [http://wanderinwords.50webs.com/new/azzioni.htm azzioni] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/web/canon-ef117/ canon ef 85mm f 1 2l usm] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/lancia-musa23.htm lancia musa km o] [http://dedugan.50webs.com/view/jaguar-xk4.htm jaguar xk8] [http://wanderinwords.50webs.com/new/memoria-sd10.htm memoria sd mmc] [http://callie20.50webs.com/resources/condizionatori-fissi19.htm condizionatori fissi inverter] [http://afreelanpork.50webs.com/lib/exsorcista.htm exsorcista] [http://hushedangel25.50webs.com/content/corse-2/ corse  dei    cavalli] [http://buuah.50webs.com/resources/www-kin.htm www kin arthur it] [http://striferaven.50webs.com/view/manutenzione-caldaia/ manutenzione caldaia] [http://evarkee.50webs.com/web/e-piu/ e piu bello insieme] [http://yurlive.50webs.com/text/strozzino/ strozzino] [http://lsparks06.50webs.com/description/edoardo-e/ edoardo e carolina] [http://darkforest214.50webs.com/gassion-giovanna.htm gassion giovanna] [http://fejanor.50webs.com/firenze-alberghi/ firenze alberghi] [http://rulemaker.50webs.com/description/seneca-versioni/ seneca versioni] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/immagini-bar.htm immagini bar] [http://badanglican.50webs.com/directory/lbe/ lbe 68] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/sx-funcard/ sx funcard] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/il-cielo/ il cielo su torino subsonica] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/thesis.htm thesis] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/teac-amplificatori/ teac amplificatori] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/the-summer/ the summer sunshine] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/uomini-senza/ uomini senza paura] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/oakley-occhiali.htm oakley occhiali off line 2 0] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/stampante-hp26/ stampante hp a4] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/www-rote.htm www rote it] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/ela-ele/ ela ele] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/placche-elettriche.htm placche elettriche] [http://badanglican.50webs.com/directory/la-falena/ la falena dargento] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/lx/ lx 500] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/testi-di9/ testi di sandro giacobbe] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/televisori-samsumg.htm televisori samsumg lcd hd] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/kit-refill/ kit refill cartucce] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/planeta-eskoria.htm planeta eskoria] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/eighteen-and.htm eighteen and life] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/progettazione-giardino/ progettazione giardino] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/corsi-di/ corsi di cucina a piacenza] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/lettori-radio/ lettori radio cd mp3] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/ave-maria/ ave maria di zero] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/en-er/ en er mundo] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/pioneer-4/ pioneer  autoradio cd dehp70bt] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/bellsouth-enternet/ bellsouth enternet] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/mercedes-benz1.htm mercedes benz vito] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/rifiuti-sanitari.htm rifiuti sanitari] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/babble-babble/ babble babble] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/la-gallina.htm la gallina twist] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/archos-gmini6/ archos gmini xs] [http://yoshimi.50webs.com/resources/blue-lyrics/ blue lyrics] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/Silvia-saint1/ silvia saint foto porno] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/amd-athlon38/ amd athlon 2 0] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/contrattocollettivo-commercio/ contrattocollettivo commercio] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/prestito-riccione/ prestito riccione] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/frate/ frate] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/cuffie-dj.htm cuffie dj pioneer] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/mivar-tv.htm mivar tv 21] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/tendenze-tagli/ tendenze tagli di capelli] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/amd-/ amd 64 dissipatore] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/geen-day/ geen day] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/scene-del1/ scene del film irreversible] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/gay-hard.htm gay hard foto] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/citta-di8.htm citta di mantova] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/cartina-politica2/ cartina politica] [http://yoshimi.50webs.com/resources/radio-am/ radio am fm lw] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/usb-mac/ usb mac wireless] [http://badanglican.50webs.com/directory/kit-home/ kit home theatre] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/shin-getter/ shin getter robot contro neo getter robot vol 01] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/pensioni-cervia/ pensioni cervia] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/champions-legue.htm champions legue] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/motori-scoppio/ motori scoppio 3 5] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/lan-wireless/ lan wireless dlink dwl2000ap] [http://yoshimi.50webs.com/resources/joensuu/ joensuu] [http://badanglican.50webs.com/directory/prive-a/ prive a novara] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/karina-bacchi1/ karina bacchi] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/il-calendario/ il calendario di paola perego] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/testi-canzoni39/ testi canzoni di tony braxton] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/www-ferrari1/ www ferrari it] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/gigaset-c/ gigaset c200 cordless] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/philips-hc/ philips hc8440] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/griffin-technology/ griffin technology  custodie in] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/havana-loco/ havana loco] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/nuova-mercedes10/ nuova mercedes clk diesel auto nuove] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/pic/ pic] [http://snmnstrz21.jino-net.ru/small/porsche2.htm porsche 901] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/corde-acustica/ corde acustica] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/zi-cellulari.htm z520i cellulari sony ericsson telefonia] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/ahead-nero1/ ahead nero reloaded] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/sistema-elettorale/ sistema elettorale americano] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/pitas/ pitas] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/sve-narodne/ sve narodne] [http://snmnstrz21.jino-net.ru/small/seweryn-krajewski.htm seweryn krajewski] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/ujiji/ ujiji] [http://badanglican.50webs.com/directory/e-femmene/ e femmene di v salemme] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/decoder-digitale12/ decoder digitale telesystem] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/rasmus-guilty/ rasmus guilty] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/acer-al6/ acer al1722] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/pacchetto-viaggio1/ pacchetto viaggio eurodisney parigi] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/www-cantanapoli/ www cantanapoli it] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/decreto/ decreto 266 91] [http://darkforest214.jino-net.ru/content/katie-jordan2/ katie jordan price nuda foto] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/rubinetti-per.htm rubinetti per giardino] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/rs-mmc22/ rs mmc card sandisk] [http://arqenelk.freehostia.com/library/whatever-want1/ whatever want milian] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/-per/ 5 per mille] [http://titinthewi.freehostia.com/trash-chileno.htm trash chileno] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/aciclovir-san/ aciclovir san 25 cpr 400 mg] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/parodie/ parodie] [http://helent.freehostia.com/small/robusta.htm robusta] [http://sugarbear2.freehostia.com/blog/idroguida/ idroguida] [http://yoshimi.50webs.com/resources/bubblin-e/ bubblin e] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/ludmilla-nuda/ ludmilla nuda] [http://nonkormist.50webs.com/content/testi-oto/ testi oto hom] [http://chrystia.50webs.com/blog/cover-pooh/ cover pooh ascolta] [http://yoshimi.50webs.com/resources/clifton-webb/ clifton webb] [http://nicole-kid1.freehostia.com/router-firewall3/ router firewall 11g wireless adsl 3com] [http://my500px.jino-net.ru/topic/video-della3/ video della prima puntata di sailor moon] {{stub}}
  
 
After masking off the parts of the copper-clad board you want to keep, you need to remove the parts you don't want to keep. This is usually done by chemically etching away the copper. There are a lot of different chemical techniques for doing this, each with its own advantages and drawbacks.
 
After masking off the parts of the copper-clad board you want to keep, you need to remove the parts you don't want to keep. This is usually done by chemically etching away the copper. There are a lot of different chemical techniques for doing this, each with its own advantages and drawbacks.
Line 8: Line 8:
 
This is the most common hobbyist etchant. Ferric chloride, FeCl<sub>3</sub>, is a brownish substance. It's usually sold in a bottle (dissolved in water, perhaps with a little acid or peroxide) or as a powder (which you have to dissolve in water).
 
This is the most common hobbyist etchant. Ferric chloride, FeCl<sub>3</sub>, is a brownish substance. It's usually sold in a bottle (dissolved in water, perhaps with a little acid or peroxide) or as a powder (which you have to dissolve in water).
  
When in solution, ferric chloride is a ferric ion (Fe<sup>3+</sup>) and a chloride ion (Cl<sup>-</sup>). The ferric ion reacts with the metallic copper on the circuit board in a redox reaction, producing a ferrous ion (Fe<sup>2+</sup>) and cuprous or cupric (Cu<sup>1+</sup> or Cu<sup>2+</sup>) copper. The chlorine is just along for the ride. The copper ion, unlike the metallic copper, is soluble, so it leaves the circuit board and goes into solution. The reaction products form a black sludge which settles to the bottom of the etching tank. After etching enough copper, all your Fe<sup>3+</sup> is used up and your solution is full of Cu<sup>1+</sup>, and you need to get more etchant.
+
When in solution, ferric chloride is a ferric ion (Fe<sup>3 </sup>) and a chloride ion (Cl<sup>-</sup>). The ferric ion reacts with the metallic copper on the circuit board in a redox reaction, producing a ferrous ion (Fe<sup>2 </sup>) and cuprous or cupric (Cu<sup>1 </sup> or Cu<sup>2 </sup>) copper. The chlorine is just along for the ride. The copper ion, unlike the metallic copper, is soluble, so it leaves the circuit board and goes into solution. The reaction products form a black sludge which settles to the bottom of the etching tank. After etching enough copper, all your Fe<sup>3 </sup> is used up and your solution is full of Cu<sup>1 </sup>, and you need to get more etchant.
  
 
== Ammonium Persulfate ==
 
== Ammonium Persulfate ==
Expensive & hard to control and optimize the process parameters (such as specific gravity & pH value).
+
Expensive
 
+
== HydroChloric Acid / Hydrogen Peroxide ==
+
 
+
Mixing about 1 part HCl (Which can be found at most hardware stores, also known as Muriatic Acid. Ask for concrete cleaner.) into 2 parts Hydrogen peroxide (normally used for cleaning cuts) you can make a fairly powerful etchant. Use gloves and don't breathe the fumes though. This will etch a 3"x5" board in less than 10 minutes. No need to heat it up. I usually like to drill a small hole through the board on a corner and thread a wire or nylon string through to help agitate / remove the board.
+
 
+
When the board is done etching, the etchant will probably look like green kool-aid, from the copper content in it. This stuff is highly corrosive and will burn skin, which is why you should wear gloves. But it is easy to handle, and fairly easy to dispose of. the etchant is easily deactivated with baking soda. Pour enough baking soda into it slowly (to keep it from boiling and overflowing... remember what happens with baking soda/vinegar? ya...) until it is a solid mass, then leave it in the sun to dry. You should contact your local authorities to find out what you should do with it next. Whatever you do, DO NOT dump the stuff down the drain, it will eat through your pipes just like any of the other etchants.
+
 
+
== Sodium Persulfate ==
+
More environmentally friendly than ferric chloride.  Can monitor the etching as initially clear new etchant solution turns blue from the copper ions.
+
 
+
== Acid Cupric Chloride ==
+
Dead simple etchant made from ordinary, store-bought chemicals (hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide). Has the advantage that it can be regenerated by bubbling oxygen/air through it, or by adding more H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. In addition, it doesn't get used up: the etchant bath simply grows with use (kind of like sourdough starter…)
+
The used etchant also makes a great algecide/pH reducer for your pool (and a whole lot cheaper than that stuff they sell at the pool store).
+
 
+
What you need:
+
* 38% Hydrochloric Acid, HCl (available at finer hardware stores or pool supply stores as Muriatic Acid)
+
* 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (available from any drug store)
+
* Plastic or Glass Pans, Jars, and tongs (no metal)
+
Directions:
+
 
+
# Mix your HCl and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> 1:1 in a non-metalic container, making sure to add the acid slowly to the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. DO NOT ADD THE H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> TO THE ACID!!!
+
# After you've masked your board, dip it in the solution and constantly agitate. You should notice a dark green cloud start to come from the board almost immedately which quickly dissapears or turns lighter as it gets further from the surface of the board.
+
# Etching should take about 10min depending on the temperature and how well you agitated the etchant. When all of the copper is gone, dip in water to wash off any stray etchant and stop the reaction.
+
# When done etching, save used etchant in a non-metalic container and mark clearly its contents.
+
# If your etchant has become a dark, murky green color, add a little bit of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> or bubble air/O<sub>2</sub> through the solution to regenerate it back to a light, transparent green color.
+
See links at bottom for more information on the chemistry and some pictures of the process.
+
 
+
== Disposal procedures ==
+
Flushing used etchant down the drain is a bad idea (and usually illegal) because copper ion is toxic. The usual recommended way to dispose of hobbyist amounts of etchant is to convert it to a solid somehow and dispose of the solid in the trash.
+
* [http://www.kepro.com/fmc4.htm Kepro Circuit Systems] Removal of Copper and Persulfate from Spent Sodium Persulfate Etchant by Precipitation
+
 
+
== External Links ==
+
* [http://www.k9spud.com/wiki/PCB:Etchants Ferric Chloride vs. Ammonium Persulfate] and other etching chemicals.
+
* [http://members.optusnet.com.au/~eseychell/PCB/etching_CuCl/index.html Etching with Air Regenerated Acid Cupric Chloride] — an excellent in-depth page on acid cupric chloride etching by Adam Seychell.
+
* [http://esmonde-white.com/etching_pcb.html Etching a Copper PCB with HCl and H2O2]
+
 
+
[[Category:Techniques]]
+

Revision as of 11:02, 27 September 2007

moto zundapp labtec webcam pro usb abit aa8xe telegiornali acapulco prima spiaggia a sinistra rifiuti 16 arresti konicaminolta a2 casnova laserjet color 3550n www virtuagirl com orari autobus in calabria numeri di telefoo villa dei cedri lazzise www cellulare panasonic x60 kirkuk impianti home theatre come e triste venezia coppia catania vaschetta ok baby fuga a mezzanotte hunny bunny regole gazebo kamrup whit temptation hard disk sata maxtor 250 gb maxline giulietta sacco dvd my life puma ferrari epson 4000 cartucce sigle gratis 2002 2003 url page stagioni di francesco guccini video pissing bella notre dame sintoamplificatore yamaha 6 1 mifune dogma 3 new beauty magazines www inter com scooter desenzano km0 bmw 325 auto km 0 camicie napoli aloe barbadensis un assassino per un testimone malattia fegato home netgear mimo garden state lancia ypsilon toscana forno da incasso smeg video 3gp porno doghe materassi risultati esami avvocato 2003 caserta alberghi rut sin die ruse donne che scopano con i figli key page www motorquality it puntatori url il punto biella acer al1711 s gloria a dio page capo verde alberghi e hotel prenotazioni albergo montecarlo bring to life mano negra illegal quien invento radio shakur tupac thug angel joypad dualshock www sfondi it fuoco di s antonio yu gi ho per visual boy advanc programmi media player gioco di carte bridge copertine di playboy memorie pc100 decapitazione ultima xdpicture card fujifilm site netzero net que es wordpad overjoyed azzioni canon ef 85mm f 1 2l usm lancia musa km o jaguar xk8 memoria sd mmc condizionatori fissi inverter exsorcista corse dei cavalli www kin arthur it manutenzione caldaia e piu bello insieme strozzino edoardo e carolina gassion giovanna firenze alberghi seneca versioni immagini bar lbe 68 sx funcard il cielo su torino subsonica thesis teac amplificatori the summer sunshine uomini senza paura oakley occhiali off line 2 0 stampante hp a4 www rote it ela ele placche elettriche la falena dargento lx 500 testi di sandro giacobbe televisori samsumg lcd hd kit refill cartucce planeta eskoria eighteen and life progettazione giardino corsi di cucina a piacenza lettori radio cd mp3 ave maria di zero en er mundo pioneer autoradio cd dehp70bt bellsouth enternet mercedes benz vito rifiuti sanitari babble babble la gallina twist archos gmini xs blue lyrics silvia saint foto porno amd athlon 2 0 contrattocollettivo commercio prestito riccione frate cuffie dj pioneer mivar tv 21 tendenze tagli di capelli amd 64 dissipatore geen day scene del film irreversible gay hard foto citta di mantova cartina politica radio am fm lw usb mac wireless kit home theatre shin getter robot contro neo getter robot vol 01 pensioni cervia champions legue motori scoppio 3 5 lan wireless dlink dwl2000ap joensuu prive a novara karina bacchi il calendario di paola perego testi canzoni di tony braxton www ferrari it gigaset c200 cordless philips hc8440 griffin technology custodie in havana loco nuova mercedes clk diesel auto nuove pic porsche 901 corde acustica z520i cellulari sony ericsson telefonia ahead nero reloaded sistema elettorale americano pitas sve narodne seweryn krajewski ujiji e femmene di v salemme decoder digitale telesystem rasmus guilty acer al1722 pacchetto viaggio eurodisney parigi www cantanapoli it decreto 266 91 katie jordan price nuda foto rubinetti per giardino rs mmc card sandisk whatever want milian 5 per mille trash chileno aciclovir san 25 cpr 400 mg parodie robusta idroguida bubblin e ludmilla nuda testi oto hom cover pooh ascolta clifton webb router firewall 11g wireless adsl 3com video della prima puntata di sailor moon

After masking off the parts of the copper-clad board you want to keep, you need to remove the parts you don't want to keep. This is usually done by chemically etching away the copper. There are a lot of different chemical techniques for doing this, each with its own advantages and drawbacks.

None of these chemicals is incredibly dangerous, but they can all be toxic or caustic, and should be treated with care. Eye protection and gloves are a very good idea. Before you start, make sure you know how dangerous each chemical is, and figure out what you will need to do if you spill it or get it on yourself. Washing with plenty of water is usually a good start. For some chemicals you may want to keep a neutralizing agent handy. An MSDS (Materials Safety Data Sheet) for the chemical will give you some basic information.

Ferric Chloride

This is the most common hobbyist etchant. Ferric chloride, FeCl3, is a brownish substance. It's usually sold in a bottle (dissolved in water, perhaps with a little acid or peroxide) or as a powder (which you have to dissolve in water).

When in solution, ferric chloride is a ferric ion (Fe3 ) and a chloride ion (Cl-). The ferric ion reacts with the metallic copper on the circuit board in a redox reaction, producing a ferrous ion (Fe2 ) and cuprous or cupric (Cu1 or Cu2 ) copper. The chlorine is just along for the ride. The copper ion, unlike the metallic copper, is soluble, so it leaves the circuit board and goes into solution. The reaction products form a black sludge which settles to the bottom of the etching tank. After etching enough copper, all your Fe3 is used up and your solution is full of Cu1 , and you need to get more etchant.

Ammonium Persulfate

Expensive

Personal tools
Namespaces

Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox